Monday, January 4, 2010

Swine Influenza Classification

Did you know about Swine Influenza? This is the story about it. Read carefully, I hope you'll find information what you need.

Swine influenza (also called Pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu) is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or S-OIV (swine-origin influenza virus) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs.[2] As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.

Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection. The meat of an infected animal poses no risk of infection when properly cooked.

During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since then, only 50 such transmissions have been confirmed. These strains of swine flu rarely pass from human to human. Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort.


Of the three genera of influenza viruses that cause human flu, two also cause influenza in pigs, with influenza A being common in pigs and influenza C being rare.[3] Influenza B has not been reported in pigs. Within influenza A and influenza C, the strains found in pigs and humans are largely distinct, although because of reassortment there have been transfers of genes among strains crossing swine, avian, and human species boundaries.

Influenza C
Influenza C viruses infect both humans and pigs, but do not infect birds.[4] Transmission between pigs and humans have occurred in the past.[5] For example, influenza C caused small outbreaks of a mild form of influenza amongst children in Japan[6] and California.[6] Because of its limited host range and the lack of genetic diversity in influenza C, this form of influenza does not cause pandemics in humans.

Influenza A
Swine influenza is known to be caused by influenza A subtypes H1N1,[8] H1N2,[8] H2N3,[9] H3N1,[10] and H3N2.[8] In pigs, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) are the most common strains worldwide.[11] In the United States, the H1N1 subtype was exclusively prevalent among swine populations before 1998; however, since late August 1998, H3N2 subtypes have been isolated from pigs. As of 2004, H3N2 virus isolates in US swine and turkey stocks were triple reassortants, containing genes from human (HA, NA, and PB1), swine (NS, NP, and M), and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages.

Although there is no formal national surveillance system in the United States to determine what viruses are circulating in pigs,[13] there is an informal surveillance network in the United States that is part of a world surveillance network.

Veterinary medical pathologist, Tracey McNamara, set up a national disease surveillance system in zoos because the zoos do active disease surveillance and many of the exotic animals housed there have broad susceptibilities. Many species fall below the radar of any federal agencies (including dogs, cats, pet prairie dogs, zoo animals, and urban wildlife), even though they may be important in the early detection of human disease outbreaks.


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